What is Doughnut Chart? : A Brief Guide to Understand

It’s as crucial to understanding the data as it is to perform the analysis itself in the field of data analytics. As an analyst, you are responsible for convincing your superiors and the general public that the data points in a particular direction, even if various people may interpret the data in different ways once it has been analyzed.

When explaining data, it’s never a good idea to show a bunch of spreadsheets or paragraphs of text. If you want to do a better job of explaining your data, you need some kind of visual aid. This demonstrates why it’s crucial to use visuals while interpreting data.

In this article, we will learn about the doughnut chart and try to have a complete understanding of it. Let’s start with a short introduction.

Doughnut Chart
As a method for data visualization, the doughnut chart is currently the most popular option. Your data are depicted as a component of the whole in a doughnut chart. The main shape is circular, with a sizable depression smack in the middle. In most cases, the doughnut chart is used to segment a particular field according to the proportion of coverage it received. It is also possible to use it for numbers rather than percentages; however, the viewer will need to be made aware of the total of all the portions of the doughnut chart.

Advantages of a Doughnut Chart
The ease with which one can both construct and interpret a doughnut chart is perhaps the greatest benefit of using one.

One of the most fundamental ways that data can be represented is through the use of a doughnut chart. There are not many tools that are superior to a doughnut chart in situations when you need to explain the predominance of a particular field in your analysis or the share of competitors in a market. For example, In most cases, the data analysis software that you use will also provide you the option to rearrange the values of the metrics displayed in the doughnut chart in order to better illustrate your argument.
In addition, a doughnut chart gives you several possibilities to connect the design of your chart with the design of the rest of your presentation. Doughnut charts are commonly used in marketing and sales presentations. You can make it in a variety of colors, or you can make it in a variety of shades of the same color.
You are very likely to come across doughnut charts, which are among the styles of graphical representation that are the easiest on the eyes of the reader. When displayed on a page alongside the text, they do not take up a significant amount of additional space. They are also pictorial representations that require the least amount of explanation. They do not require any additional explanatory text to be written. At other times, the percentage share of the predominant measure is all that is required to adequately explain them.
Disadvantages of a Doughnut Chart
Recent years have seen a proliferation of representational formats that use a three-dimensional (3D) image to convey information.

When performing an analysis of a doughnut chart in three dimensions, one encounters a number of challenges, though.
In addition, the chart is a wonderful tool to utilize if the number of metrics utilized in your area of expertise is quite small, possibly numbering in the single digits. However, your doughnut chart becomes more difficult to interpret as the number of sectors increases.
Additionally, there is not much room for an explanation, should one be necessary, and additional methods of data analysis must be utilized to identify outliers.
Doughnut Chart and Pie Chart: The Difference
The huge hole in the middle of a doughnut chart is the most noticeable distinction between it and a pie chart. If you want to draw attention to a specific piece of information—say, the total of all the doughnut chart’s sectors—you may do so by placing that information in this hole. Doughnut charts can thus display slightly more information than pie charts. The two concentric doughnuts can represent two separate data series, making the doughnut chart a very versatile data visualization tool. In the case of a pie chart, this cannot be done.

Conclusion
An alternative way of looking at a doughnut chart is to think of it as a more advanced variant of a pie chart. When presenting market share, product categories, product sub-categories, etc., this kind of chart can be really helpful. This article briefly discusses the doughnut chart, its advantages and disadvantages, and the difference between a doughnut chart and a pie chart.

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Why Implement An LMS To Track Employee Training?

A Learning Management System (LMS) to track employee training has never been more essential for HR and Learning and Development (L&D) managers. It has been difficult to migrate away from management’s customary in-person training sessions while the remote/work-from-home transition has been in full effect. An LMS’s tracking of employee training offers a simple approach to keeping workers on task and offers good reporting options.

Employee motivation, performance, and retention are all benefits of training. Because constantly onboarding new staff will result in budget overruns and decreased productivity, developing current personnel is essential. We’ll go through the reasons why keeping track of employee training is essential in this post.

Why Should Employee Training Be Tracked?
Without data, it may be difficult for businesses of all sizes to decide what is effective and what is not. A corporation can make more informed decisions about crucial personnel and business growth development plans the more information it has at its disposal.

To keep track of staff training, every company has to establish a Learning Management System for the following five reasons:

If the company is responsible for fostering a healthy corporate culture through training and needs an easy way to measure, monitor, and assess employee performance.
If the company mandates compliance training, everyone must finish it and present it for final acceptance.
If the company needs to keep track of how well its employees are learning, it may use specific courses, results from mini-exams, and data on who is taking their allocated courses and who is not.
If the company needs to show an ROI to keep the program going after investing in training new hires and reskilling long-term personnel.
Tracking employee training such as Leadership Training is essential because of all the compliance requirements and laws that firms must follow in today’s industry.

Tracking Employee Training Using LMS
Just as crucial as putting the system in place is keeping track of staff training using an LMS. Making informed decisions about process improvement based on staff test results is difficult without tracking.

Here are four methods for utilizing an LMS to monitor staff training:

Provide reminders for which lessons must be finished by when, along with automatically defined expiration dates.
Execute a report to see when employees use the system and the time they take to finish the needed learning courses such as
Leadership Courses for developing leadership skills.
Check the learning modules that certain workers have done that are not required by the company.
In order to assess an employee’s aptitude in stressful conditions, create timed assessments for expedited learning.
Investing in a safe LMS eliminates any manual reporting errors and keeps staff members informed about their own learning pathways while also keeping them on track.

Advantages Of Using An LMS
Employing learning management systems helps businesses improve. A fantastic approach to keep staff members interested and informed of crucial product and service improvements is through continuous learning in the form of various training for employee development, such as Leadership Training.

The advantages of adopting an LMS are as follows:
It streamlines and automates the onboarding of new staff. Excel sheets and emails are no longer exchanged back and forth.
Budgets for staff learning may be easily managed by businesses. It’s excellent for meeting annual budgeting needs and minimizing overhead.
It is excellent that upper-level management has access to see where employees are on their own learning pathways around-the-clock, every day of the year.
Wherever necessary, you may easily make changes to the learning modules behind the doors in real time.
Depending on the demands of the task, you may import, export, and remove employee learning routes as required.
It preserves all training data in a single, safe store.
Around certain product and service launch dates, you can add due dates and create learning objectives.
Businesses may use gamification and prizes to motivate staff to continue learning at all levels.
Ending Lines
Whatever the size, everything in the company needs to be tracked. It makes perfect sense to use an LMS to monitor employee learning and to oversee Leadership Courses and other learning courses. In the future, businesses that don’t use an LMS will be at a significant disadvantage, especially in light of recent remote work efforts.

What is a Confusion Matrix in Machine Learning?

In machine learning, a confusion matrix is a table that is often used to evaluate the performance of a classification model (or “classifier”) on a set of test data. For each instance in the test set, the classifier predicts a class label and the confusion matrix shows the number of times each predicted label was correct or incorrect. In this blog post, we will take a look at what a confusion matrix is and how it can be used to evaluate the performance of your machine-learning models. We will also see how to interpret the results of a confusion matrix and what some common pitfalls are that you should avoid.

What is a Confusion Matrix?
A confusion matrix is a table that is used to evaluate the performance of a machine-learning model. The table shows the predicted values for each class and the actual values for each class. The diagonal elements of the table represent the number of correct predictions, while the off-diagonal elements represent the number of incorrect predictions.

There are several measures that can be computed from a confusion matrix, including accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. Accuracy is the proportion of correct predictions made by the model. Precision is the proportion of positive predictions that are actually positive. The recall is the proportion of actual positives that were correctly predicted by the model. The F1 score is a measure of how well the model predicts positive examples and is computed as the harmonic mean of precision and recall.

How is a Confusion Matrix Used in Machine Learning?
A confusion matrix is a table that is used to evaluate the performance of a machine-learning model. The table is made up of four cells, each of which represents the number of predictions made by the model in each category. The first cell represents the number of true positives, which are predictions that were correctly classified as positive. The second cell represents the number of false positives, which are predictions that were incorrectly classified as positive. The third cell represents the number of true negatives, which are predictions that were correctly classified as negative. The fourth cell represents the number of false negatives, which are predictions that were incorrectly classified as negative.

The rows in the table represent the actual values, while the columns represent the predicted values. So, a row with two entries would represent an actual value of positive and a predicted value of either positive or negative. A column with two entries would represent a predicted value of either positive or negative and an actual value of either positive or negative.

The accuracy is calculated by taking the sum of the true positives and true negatives and dividing it by the total number of predictions made. This gives us a ratio of correct predictions to total predictions.

The precision is calculated by taking the sum of the true positives and dividing it by the sum of all predicted positives (true positives + false positives). This gives us a ratio of correct positive predictions to all positive predictions.

The recall is calculated by taking the sum of true positives and dividing by the sum of actual positives(

What are the Benefits of Using a Confusion Matrix?

A confusion matrix is a table that is used to evaluate the accuracy of a classification model. The table is made up of four columns: true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives. Each row represents the actual class while each column represents the predicted class.

The benefits of using a confusion matrix are:
-It allows you to see how your classification model is performing in different classes.

-It can help you to improve your classification model by identifying areas where it is doing well and areas where it needs improvement.

-It is a simple and easy way to evaluate your classification model.

How to interpret a Confusion Matrix
In order to interpret a confusion matrix, it is important to understand what each of the four quadrants represents. The first quadrant represents true positives, which are correctly predicted positives. The second quadrant represents false negatives, which are incorrectly predicted negatives. The third quadrant represents false positives, which are incorrectly predicted positives. The fourth quadrant represents true negatives, which are correctly predicted negatives.

To calculate the accuracy of the predictions, we need to take the sum of the true positives and true negatives and divide it by the total number of samples. This gives us the ratio of correct predictions out of all of the predictions made.

$$ \text{Accuracy} = \frac{\text{True Positives} + \text{True Negatives}}{\text{Total Samples}} $$

The precision measures how many of the positive predictions were actually correct. This is calculated by taking the ratio of true positives to all positive predictions (true positive + false positive). High precision means that there were few false positive predictions.

$$ \text{Precision} = \frac{\text{True Positives}}{\text{True Positives} + \text{False Positives}} $$

The recall measures how many of the actual positive samples were correctly predicted as positive. This is calculated by taking the ratio of true positives to all actual positive samples (true positive + false negative). A high recall means that there were few false negative predictions

Alternatives to the Confusion Matrix
A confusion matrix is a table that is used to evaluate the accuracy of a classification model. The table shows the predicted class for each observation in the test set and the actual class for each observation.

There are other ways to evaluate the accuracy of a classification model. One way is to use a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve). This curve plots the true positive rate (TPR) against the false positive rate (FPR) for different values of the threshold. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of how well the model can distinguish between classes. Another way to evaluate a classification model is to use precision and recall. Precision is the number of true positives divided by the total number of predictions, and recall is the number of true positives divided by the total number of actual positives.

Conclusion
A confusion matrix is a powerful tool for measuring the accuracy of a machine-learning model. By visualizing the results of a model’s predictions, a confusion matrix can help you quickly identify areas where the model is performing well and areas where it could use improvement. Skillslash can help you build something big here. With Best Dsa Course and Data Science Course In Hyderabad with a placement guarantee, Skillslash can help you get into it with its Full Stack Developer Course In Hyderabad. you can easily transition into a successful data scientist. Get in touch with the support team to know more.

Top 5 Data Collection Methods & Process

The value of data has been demonstrated throughout all contemporary endeavors, from academia to commerce. In order to fully understand the processes in which the data is collected, sufficient data must first be collected.

However, there are particular channels via which data is gathered. The article will center on the numerous techniques that can be employed to gather data. In addition, the top five approaches that can be used for data collection will be outlined.

Various Data Collection Methods
Primary data collection and secondary data collection are the two broad categories into which many data-gathering techniques can be placed. Primarily, we can categorize the ways in which we gather information into two broad categories: qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative data collection methods
The emphasis in this form of data gathering is on the quality of the data collected rather than on the quantity. Researchers often rely on their gut feelings or other unstructured sources of information while collecting this type of data.

While researchers or users can always adjust their approach, gathering qualitative data takes a significant amount of effort. Research requires meticulous documentation in the form of notes, photographs, audio recordings, or any other medium deemed appropriate by the researcher.

Interviews, document reviews, online questionnaires, web surveys, discussions, and observations are all examples of common qualitative methods of data collection.

Quantitative data collection method
Quantitative research relies more heavily on quantity than quality, as suggested by the name of the methodology. Data derivation typically entails some sort of mathematical calculation. Interviews (in-person, over the phone, and via computer-assisted personal interviewing [CAPI]) and questionnaires (in both electronic and paper-and-pencil formats) are all part of the quantitative approach to data collecting.

5 Methods of Data Collection
There are several reported approaches to data collection. Some of the most common methods of data collection in the present day are as follows:

1. Surveys

Among the many methods of gathering information, customer surveys present an opportunity to directly query clients for their thoughts and opinions. Surveys are a useful tool for gathering both qualitative and quantitative information. Typically, they take the form of a list of questions or concerns about a given service or item. Typically presented as multiple-choice inquiries, or occasionally requiring an explanation in a few words, these inquiries require responses from the customers. Study questionnaires can be administered over the internet, paper, and pencil, or over the phone. However, surveying in an online format is the most convenient. The poll can be created and the link shared via email, social media, or any number of other channels.

2. Keeping an eye on the social media landscape

Many people these days utilize social media to document their daily activities online. This is one of the advantages of modern technology, especially given the internet’s central role in disseminating knowledge. Social media is also useful for another purpose: gathering feedback from customers. Researchers can learn about customer preferences by perusing the lists of people who are already using or interested in a particular product or brand. It’s important to know who you’re selling to before you can create a successful product. People who are passionate about a certain brand are more likely to mention it in their profiles. By frequently looking for brand names, you can learn what kinds of consumers are buying your products. There are also several resources available to help make the most of analytics from outside sources.

3. Online monitoring

Owning an app or website can provide a wealth of information on customers for a company or organization. The acquisition of client information will be greatly aided by the technological tools available today. Customers contribute data points even if they just visit a single page. Data analysis reveals useful information about the website’s popularity and the number of people who have visited it. In addition to this, data about which tabs visitors opened and for how long they stayed on the site is also recorded. Collecting this data and analyzing it with the right analytics program is possible.

4. Marketing Analytics

Businesses rely on marketing campaigns to spread the word about all of the products they’ve created. Despite marketing efforts, it has been noted that a great deal of data may be gathered from any website, email, or another online medium. With the right ad placement software, you can track which consumers or viewers clicked on your marketing ads. Information about the customer’s viewing time and device is also sent.

5. Registration and subscription data

When a customer joins an organization’s email list, the company learns certain details about that person. The next step is to collect data from clients, which will be utilized to send them the information they care about.

Final Words
With this, we reach the concluding part of the article. To summarize our discussion, we learned in-depth about the data collection types and the 5 ways to easily collect data. If you have a knack for data and numbers, then a future in data science will be the ideal path for you.

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